Sampling Methods for Quantitative Research Sampling Methods Sampling and types of sampling methods commonly used in quantitative research are discussed in the following module. Explain probability and non-probability sampling and describes the different types of each.
In fact, the methods are largely limited by the imagination of the researcher. Here I discuss a few of the more common methods. Participant Observation One of the most common methods for qualitative data collection, participant observation is also one of the most demanding.
It requires that the researcher become a participant in the culture or context being observed. The literature on participant observation discusses how to enter the context, the role of the researcher as a participant, the collection and storage of field notes, and the analysis of field data.
Participant observation often requires months or years of intensive work because the researcher needs to become accepted as a natural part of the culture in order to assure that the observations are of the natural phenomenon. Direct Observation Direct observation is distinguished from participant observation in a number of ways.
First, a direct observer doesn't typically try to become a participant in the context. However, the direct observer does strive to be as unobtrusive as possible so as not to bias the observations.
Second, direct observation suggests a more detached perspective. The researcher is watching rather than taking part. Consequently, technology can be a useful part of direct observation. For instance, one can videotape the phenomenon or observe from behind one-way mirrors.
Third, direct observation tends to be more focused than participant observation. The researcher is observing certain sampled situations or people rather than trying to become immersed in the entire context.
Finally, direct observation tends not to take as long as participant observation. For instance, one might observe child-mother interactions under specific circumstances in a laboratory setting from behind a one-way mirror, looking especially for the nonverbal cues being used.
Unstructured Interviewing Unstructured interviewing involves direct interaction between the researcher and a respondent or group.
It differs from traditional structured interviewing in several important ways. First, although the researcher may have some initial guiding questions or core concepts to ask about, there is no formal structured instrument or protocol. Second, the interviewer is free to move the conversation in any direction of interest that may come up.
Consequently, unstructured interviewing is particularly useful for exploring a topic broadly. However, there is a price for this lack of structure.
Because each interview tends to be unique with no predetermined set of questions asked of all respondents, it is usually more difficult to analyze unstructured interview data, especially when synthesizing across respondents.
Case Studies A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context. For instance, Freud developed case studies of several individuals as the basis for the theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget did case studies of children to study developmental phases.
Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative kaja-net.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.
FAQ compares qualitative market research methods versus quantitative research methods.
The following Slideshare presentation, Sampling in Quantitative and Qualitative Research – A practical how to, offers an overview of sampling methods for quantitative research and contrasts them with qualitative method for further understanding. A qualitative "approach" is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research.
It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. here, four of the major qualitative approaches are introduced.
There are a wide variety of methods that are common in qualitative measurement. In fact, the methods are largely limited by the imagination of the researcher.