Orientation of Critical Theories M.
The views of Plato and Socrates This theory views art as an imitation of various aspects of the universe. This is the oldest aesthetic theory. This concept makes its first appearance in the dialogues of Plato.
The arts of painting, poetry, music, dancing, and sculpture, Socrates says, are all imitations. Imitation in the dialogues of Plato operates with three categories. It is the world of sense, natural or artificial.
It comprises of such things as shadows, images in water or mirrors, and the fine arts. Socrates expounds these ideas further. According to him, in the nature of art there are three beds.
The Idea is the essence of the bed and it is made by God. Then, there is the bed made by the carpenter. Lastly, there is the bed found in a painting. Art is at second remove from the truth. It is equally remote from the beautiful and the good. So the poet becomes the competitor of the artisan, the lawmaker and the moralist.
The views of Aristotle Aristotle in the Poetics also defines poetry as imitation. In Plato and in Aristotle, the work of art is seen as an imitation.
It is constructed according to prior models. However Aristotle removed the other world of pure Ideas. He also treated imitation as something specific to the arts. He also introduced supplementary distinctions according to the objects imitated, the medium of imitation and the manner dramatic, narrative or mixed in which the imitation is done.
Aristotle also distinguished poetry from other kinds of art, and then differentiated the various poetic genres — such as epic and drama, tragedy and comedy. Focusing on tragedy, he differentiates the various elements in it — plot, character, thought and so on.
Imitation continued to be a prominent term for a long time after Aristotle — all the way to 18th century, in fact. The importance given to the term differed from critic to critic.
Some 18th century discussions of the term imitation Abrams gives some examples of 18th century discussions of imitation that is of special interest. He wanted to reduce the rules of art to one single principle. From this stage, Batteux goes on to extract one by one the rules of taste — general rules for poetry and painting and detailed rules for the genres.
His book, Laokoon, was published in He tried to remove the confusion in the relation of poetry with the other graphic and plastic arts. Lessing concludes that poetry, like painting, is imitation. The diversity between poetry and other arts is in the medium.
Poetry consists of a number of sounds articulated in time whereas painting is forms and colours fixed in space. The concept that art is imitation played an important part in neo-classical aesthetics.
Art is seen mostly as an imitation that is instrumental in producing effects in an audience. The focus of attention has shifted not from work to universe but from work to audience. To Sidney poetry has a purpose — to achieve certain effects in an audience.
It imitates with the purpose of pleasing and pleases with the ultimate aim of teaching. This is the gist of the arguments of Sidney in Apologie for Poetry. The poet is elevated from the moral philosopher and the historian by his capacity to move the audience to virtue.Jackson Bate’s From Classic to Romantic and M.
H. Abrams’s The Mirror and the Lamp, the Romantic “break” has remained largely intact through the upheavals in critical practice prompted by deconstruction in . One of the deans of literary criticism in America, M. H. Abrams is Class of Professor of English at Cornell University.
He is the author of two landmark books, The Mirror and the Lamp and Natural Supernaturalism, and general editor of the Norton Anthology of English kaja-net.com: M.
H. Abrams. The mirror and the lamp: romantic theory and the critical tradition: 1.
The mirror and the lamp: romantic theory and the critical tradition. by Meyer Howard Abrams Print book: Essay: English. by M H Abrams Print book: English. New York, Oxford University Press 3.
The mirror and the lamp: romantic theory and the critical. This essay examines self-portrayal in fictional and nonfictional written discourse. The essay focuses on various treatments of self-representation in rhetorical and literary critical theory in an effort to overcome the conceptual and terminological confusion that has arisen across time and disciplinary specialties in the discussion of self-portrayal.
M.H. Abrams: M.H. Abrams, American literary critic who revolutionized the study of the Romantic period in English literature through groundbreaking analysis. He also served as general editor (–) for the first seven editions of The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Following his graduation from. He is usually cited as M. H. Abrams, was an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. Under Abrams' editorship, the Norton Anthology of English Literature became and is the standard text for undergraduate survey courses across the U.S. and a major trendsetter in worldwide literary. With this book, M.H. Abrams has given us a remarkable study, admirably conceived and executed, a book of quite exceptional and no doubt lasting significance for a number of fields - for the history of ideas and comparative literature as well as for English literary history, criticism and aesthetics/5.
M.H. Abrams: M.H. Abrams, American literary critic who revolutionized the study of the Romantic period in English literature through groundbreaking analysis. He also served as general editor (–) for the first seven editions of The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Harold Bloom (born July 11, ) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.
Since the publication of his first book in , Bloom has written more than forty books,  including twenty books of literary criticism, several books discussing religion, and a novel.