This includes federal, state and local laws that pertain to various areas of HR such as recruitment, benefits, labor relations and termination. Keeping up-to-date with legislation ensures that the organization remains compliant and avoids costly penalties. Department of Labor administers major statutes and regulations affecting business and workers.
Alta Charo The potential use of human gene editing is stimulating discussions and responses in every country.
I will attempt to provide an overview of legal and regulatory initiatives around the globe. But I need to note that we are talking not only about government when we talk about law, regulation, and biotechnology.
We are really talking essentially about an ecosystem that is made up of government, the public, and private industry, which produces innovative products based on the basic science and applied research coming out of our universities.
The ecology of this system is one in which there are many legal or policy issues that combine to affect whether biotechnology is promoted or hindered in any particular country. It ranges from topics such as intellectual property rights, which are reflected in areas from patent policy, to international trade laws, which will have a huge effect on whether or not the new products are going to be able to cross borders easily and under what conditions.
The regulatory framework is going to determine the speed at which biotechnology moves from laboratory to development to marketed product. The consumer demand will also be a profoundly important feature in determining which products are developed, because so many discoveries do not lead to something that the public wants or needs, or that it knows it wants and needs.
This will also be affected by variables such as stigma and cultural attitudes. Last of course, but certainly not least, are areas of public research and investment. All of these together are going to combine into a vision of how a particular country moves or does not move biotechnology.
Some of the categories that have been proposed by other scholars range from promotional, in which a country is actually pushing the innovation; to a more neutral stance, in which it simply proceeds or not with as little government direction as possible; to precautionary; to an absolutely prohibitive system that either defunds entirely or even makes criminal the technology.
It is worth keeping in mind that within a country, one can have very different attitudes about different aspects of biotechnology. For example, the United States has a fairly permissive approach to biotechnology applied to genetically engineered animals and plants in the agricultural sector, whereas it has a much more cautious approach when it comes to the use of biotechnology in the context of human clinical care and therapies.
There does not have to be a single approach to biotechnology across all application areas. There can be differences among countries and even within a country. One can also look at how different areas of policy can be tied to one or another of these visions of an overall biotechnology direction.
For example, strong patent protection can be viewed as promotional because it gives industry the greatest possible financial incentive to pursue particular application areas.
In the area of biosafety, we see more case-by-case evaluation of biotechnology products, where everything really begins to hinge simply on the presumption about risk.
One can take a precautionary approach that presumes it is dangerous until it is proven safe, or a permissive approach that presumes it is safe until it is proven dangerous. Since it is often impossible to prove either danger or safety, where that presumption falls will often be more determinative than anything else in deciding how quickly technologies move from the basic science laboratory to clinical research to application.
Finally, in the area of public information, there is a very lively debate going on, particularly in the United States, about the labeling of foods that have some component that involves modern biotechnology. For example, now that the Food and Drug Administration FDA has approved the sale of a genetically modified farmed salmon, there is a debate about whether that salmon has to be identified for consumers.
On the other hand, if regulation is mandated only when there is evidence of a higher level of risk, products will reach the market more quickly, reflecting a more promotional stance.
To implement any one of these approaches, we have a variety of mechanisms that range from the least to the most enforceable.
Public consultation is the least enforceable approach, and there is a spectrum of regulatory and legislative measures that can strengthen the level of control.
In the area of public consultation, we have numerous examples from around the world. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act is unusual among environmental laws because rather than telling individuals or companies what they can and cannot do, it simply provides that when the government makes a particular decision, it must be subjected to a higher degree of public scrutiny than is typical.Legal, Safety, and Regulatory Requirements Paper HCS Legal, Safety, and Regulatory Requirements Paper The workplace is a delicate environment filled with different personalities kaja-net.com://kaja-net.com In this edition, we explore some of the legal, regulatory and ethical implications of robots and robotic systems and applications.
We begin by giving our view of why this emerging technology will become increasingly prevalent and why it is important that lawyers and kaja-net.com chapter: the social, legal, and regulatory environment Get This Book Visit kaja-net.com to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free kaja-net.com://kaja-net.com · Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
The core environmental law regimes address environmental pollution. A related but distinct set History · Pollution control · Resource sustainability · Principles · Theorykaja-net.com · Legal & regulatory assessment for newborn & child policy survey Purpose.
Legislation can and must be seen as an important vehicle towards ensuring the promotion and protection of children's human rights, including those related to kaja-net.com The LRERI was developed by Verisk Maplecroft to assess the legal and regulatory environment and risks across countries and 26 risk indices divided into seven thematic pillars: Rule of Law, Corruption Risk, Corporate Governance, Regulatory Framework, Respect for Property Rights, Supply Chain Labour Risk and Costs of Doing kaja-net.com://kaja-net.com