Interaction of Heredity and Environment All traits depend both on genetic and environmental factors. Heredity and environment interact to produce their effects. This means that the way genes act depends on the environment in which they act.
Meaning and Effects Article shared by: The Meaning of Heredity: The biological or psychological characteristics which are transmitted by the parents to their off-springs are known by the name of heredity. Heredity is, in other words, a biological process of transmission of certain traits of behaviour of the parents to their children, by means of the fertilized egg.
Heredity traits are innate; they are present at birth. The human individual is the progeny of two parent cells that come together when a male sperm fertilizes a female egg. The chromosomes contain chemical substances called genes.
These basic substances, chromosomes and genes determine characteristics of the individual. And this is what constitutes heredity. The essential characteristics inherited by all human beings are physical structure, reflexes, innate drives, intelligence, and temperament. There are some biologists who claim that the difference in the traits or qualities of individuals or groups are due to the difference in their heredity.
They are duly supported by some psychologists and sociologists in their assertion, that like begets like. But there are others who explain that the variations of human beings and the societies are due to differences in environment.
Thus a great controversy has been going on since long about the relative importance of heredity and environment in determining the behaviour of individuals and groups. Though arguments have been advanced by the supporters of both heredity and environment, no exact conclusions with regard to the relative importance of the two factors have been drawn, nor is it possible either to determine the relative values of both.
Modern biology has long insisted that we are what our parents and grandparents have made us, that heredity counts far more than social opportunity.
Not only it is impossible for a man to change his skin, but he cannot change his outlook, his mode of thinking or behaviour because these too are hereditary. Others, on the other hand, belittle the importance of heredity. The main supporters of the heredity theory have been authors like Galton, Karl Pearson, Mc Dougall, and others while the champions of the environment have been G.
Watson in the United States and other behaviourist authors. Galton in his pioneer work on Hereditary Genius has sought to show that the probability of the occurrence of greatly gifted children is vastly higher when the fathers are of a superior intelligence.
Karl Pearson had also concluded that the influence of the environment is far less than that of heredity in determination of importance of human differences. According to him, it was possible to measure the relative efficiency of the two. He had given evidence to show that for people of the same race within a given community heredity is more than seven times more important than environment.
Groups of higher intellectual rating produce more persons of genius: Like Pearson many other researchers have shown that the groups with the higher social or intellectual rating have produced more persons of genius or distinction.
For instance, royal families produce in proportion more geniuses than others, families of the clergy in the United States produce the largest proportion of notable men, followed in order by the other professions, businessmen, farmers, labourers and so on. Difference in intelligence levels of different occupation groups: Some writers have brought out considerable differences between the intelligence levels of different occupation groups.
For instance, it has been found that the children of professional parents had an intelligence quotient of ; those of semi-professional and managerial classes ; clerical, skilled trades, and retail business But all this is not necessarily due to heredity.
These are no doubt important facts but conclusions drawn from them appear to be superficial. They simply give evidence regarding a common observation: But these facts tell us nothing how these differences are attributed to heredity.
It is clear that the persons engaged in these experiments must be having strong prejudices in favour of heredity. Further, we know nothing of the equipment of the parents themselves but only their degree of success in life and even the criterion of success could not be a rigid one.
Again, the environments for the children of different classes were quite different.
The children of the upper classes had definitely better educational and other facilities. There is then no reason why they should not be more intellectual. Not only the biologists assume that the traditional behaviour of a population is accounted for physically, but they are unwilling to study the variability of human behaviour under different social conditions.
All the evidence available argues against the theory that a people must conduct itself in a certain way merely because of its physique.ADVERTISEMENTS: Heredity and Environment: Meaning and Effects!
The Meaning of Heredity: Man’s behaviour is influenced by two forces: heredity and environment. The biological or psychological characteristics which are transmitted by the parents to their off-springs are known by the name of heredity. Heredity is, in other words, a biological process of transmission of certain traits [ ].
The field of research looking at gene-environment interactions (GxE) is growing. How do your genes and the environment interact? It is important to understand that most times your genes do not determine your health. Small differences in your genetic makeup mean that two people can respond differently to .
Gene-environment correlation (or genotype-environment correlation) is said to occur when exposure to environmental conditions depends on an individual's genotype Contents 1 Definition.
• Environmental inﬂuences range from the things we lump together under "nurture" (such as parenting, family dynamics, schooling, and neighborhood quality) to biological encounters (such as viruses, birth complications, and even biological events in cells).
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