The titles in this list are those in most common use today in English-language scholarship, followed by standard abbreviations in parentheses. For no discernible reason, Latin titles are customarily employed in some cases, English in others.
Henri Carteron held the "extreme view"  that Aristotle's concept of force was basically qualitative,  but other authors reject this. John Philoponus in the Middle Ages and Galileo are said to have shown by experiment that Aristotle's claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.
In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones whether friction is ignored, or not and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium. Four causes Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: His term aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.
Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is Greek aristotle by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.
It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole i. Plainly put, the formal cause is Greek aristotle idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.
“The Persians” (Gr: “Persai”; Lat: “Persae”) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright kaja-net.com produced in BCE, it is considered the oldest surviving play in the history of theatre, and also the only extant Greek tragedy that is based on contemporary kaja-net.com recounts the Persian response to news of their military defeat under Xerxes at the Battle of Salamis in 1. Preliminaries. Aristotle wrote two ethical treatises: the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian kaja-net.com does not himself use either of these titles, although in the Politics (a36) he refers back to one of them—probably the Eudemian Ethics—as “ta êthika”—his writings about kaja-net.com words “Eudemian” and “Nicomachean” were added later, perhaps because the former was. Jan 30, · Tom Richey provides students with an introduction to Greek philosophy, contrasting Plato's idealism with Aristotle's realism and comparing the basic premise of Plato's Republic with Aristotle.
It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest.
Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over.
The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition. History of optics Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problemsbook The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in.
With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun's image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.
Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous".
There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that only applies to people's moral choices. History of astronomy In astronomyAristotle refuted Democritus 's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out correctly that if "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations.
He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime. Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings.
He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos. He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus.
His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results.
He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed.
In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific.Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western intellectual and scientific thought.
Aristotle wrote two ethical treatises: the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian kaja-net.com does not himself use either of these titles, although in the Politics (a36) he refers back to one of them—probably the Eudemian Ethics—as “ta êthika”—his writings about kaja-net.com words “Eudemian” and “Nicomachean” were added later, perhaps because the former was.
“The Persians” (Gr: “Persai”; Lat: “Persae”) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright kaja-net.com produced in BCE, it is considered the oldest surviving play in the history of theatre, and also the only extant Greek tragedy that is based on contemporary kaja-net.com recounts the Persian response to news of their military defeat under Xerxes at the Battle of Salamis in Study the life of Greek philosopher Aristotle and the roots of western thought on kaja-net.com Lecture 8 Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle: The political and social upheaval caused by the Persian Wars as well as continued strife between Athens and Sparta (see Lecture 7) had at least one unintended kaja-net.com the 5 th century, a flood of new ideas poured into Athens.
In general, these new ideas came as a result of an influx of Ionian thinkers into the Attic peninsula. Aug 21, · The Greek philosopher Aristotle ( B.C.) made significant and lasting contributions to nearly every aspect of human knowledge, from logic to biology to ethics and aesthetics.