Furthermore, in the studies of cultural anthropology, it is a known fact that every civilization consist of an organized system which is the platform for their mode of subsistence. The three systems that I will highlight are social, economic and their political organizations. The Mbuti Pygmies are a unique group of people who reside in the tropical rain forests of northeastern Congo, in Central Africa. Imagine how the forest must have been an awe inspiring beautiful green picturesque setting.
According to Schebesta, the author of the earliest reliable reports, only the Mbuti are true Pygmies, i. The following summary refers only to the Mbuti Pgymies The Mbuti are located at lat.
Their territory is a primary rain forest. The Mbuti have conventionally been divided into three groups, which are distinct from each other linguistically, economically, and geographically.
Each of the three groups speaks a different language which corresponds to the language spoken by neighboring villagerspractices different hunting techniques, and is territorially distinct.
The Aka speak the Mangbetu language Sudanic familyhunt primarily with spears, and live in the north. These spear-hunters have not been extensively studied. The Efe speak the Lese language Sudanic familyare archers, and are located in the east. The Efe were studied by Schebesta. The Sua speak the Bira language Bantu branch of the Benue-Congo familyhunt with nets, and live to the south.
Furthermore, in spite of the fact that the three languages are very different, there are enough similarities in intonation to make it possible for Pygmies to recognize, All of the Pygmies of the Ituri Forest recognize themselves by the term Mbuti, and the only political identity they have is in opposition to the village cultivators.
Since there has never been an official demographic census, it is impossible to give an accurate estimate of the total Mbuti population. From discussion with missionaries and administrators and from his own experience, however, Turnbull guessed that the population was approximately 40, The Mbuti live in territorially defined nomadic bands.
The membership of these bands is very fluid. Bands have no formal political structure; there are no chiefs, and there is no council.
Net hunting is a cooperative venture, requiring the cooperation of the whole band, including the women and children. Archery, on the other hand, is primarily a family venture, requiring only two or three men. The most obvious distinction resulting from the economic differences is that of band size.
Archer bands average about 6 huts per band, while net-hunting bands average The Mbuti maintain relationships with surrounding village cultivators whose languages the Mbuti have adopted.
Many accounts indicate that the Mbuti are highly acculturated and have adopted many features of villager lifestyle beyond language, such as the clan system and certain religious observances.
Turnbull feels that these features are quite The relationship between the Mbuti and the villagers is maintained on several different levels, centering around trade. The Pygmies bring the villagers honey and meat in return for plantation products.
This economic exchange can occur on several levels: The first type of relationship does not occur very often, exchanges being more easily conducted on an interpersonal basis.
The lineage relationship is hereditary on both sides. The kare brotherhood is established in nkumbi initiations. In the nkumbi initiation, male villagers and Mbuti are circumcised. The relationship established in the initiation is continued throughout life and centers around economic exchange.
The religious life of the Mbuti is not at all clear. The molimo ceremony is performed primarily by men and is associated with singing and the use of a particular type of horn, called the molimo horn. The molimo is particularly associated with death, but it may be performed at any crisis, such as a poor hunting season.
The elima ceremony is performed primarily by women and is associated with life-cycle crises of particular concern to women, such as birth, puberty, marriage, and death.
Choose Type of service.Free Essay: The Mbuti Pygmies in the Ituri Forest The Mbuti Pygmies in the Ituri forest in central Africa are foragers who use a combination of foraging, net. Home / Pygmies of africa essay writing / Pygmies of essays on the death linda pastan marks essay help essay on the corporation documentary monsanto malnutrition in africa essays online essays moral political and literary liberty funds orson welles othello criticism essays visit to a jungle essays the leopard man essay chinese opinion of.
main groups of Pygmies: the Tswa in the west, the Twa between Lake. Kivu and Lake Tanganyika, and the Mbuti (also referred to as Bambuti. or BaMbuti) of the Ituri Forest.
According to Schebesta, the author. of the earliest reliable reports, only the Mbuti are true Pygmies, i.e., under cm. in height and relatively unmixed with neighboring. peoples. Anthropology - Pygmies of Africa, Essay Students will write about a particular culture, which exists today and not in the past.
Students will find a culture by choosing from one of the following geographic areas: Africa, Latin America, Asia (East and South), Middle East, Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Australia (the culture chosen must.
Free Essay: The Kongo and the Pygmy Tribes in the Modern Day Zaire The study of tribes in the Congo is a very confusing matter. Linguistic, regional and.
Susan Schulman’s photo essay reveals life in the Dzanga-Sangha forest, where Baka Pygmies are struggling to maintain their traditional way of life in the face of logging, poaching and a lack of.