In The Communist Manifesto ofKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels described the crisis tendencies of capitalism in terms of "the enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces": Modern bourgeois society, with its relations of production, of exchange and of property, a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange, is like the sorcerer who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. In these crises, a great part not only of existing production, but also of previously created productive forces, are periodically destroyed. In these crises, there breaks out an epidemic that, in all earlier epochs, would have seemed an absurdity — the epidemic of over-production.
It is also used by the World Bank with regard to economic and societal development and by management experts as a way of thinking about organizational development.
We examine its nature, some of the issues surrounding its use, and its significance for educators.
It took some time for the term to come into widespread usage. Contributions from Jane Jacobs in relation to urban life and neighbourliness, Pierre Bourdieu with regard to social theory, and then James S. Coleman in his discussions of the social context of education moved the idea into academic debates.
However, it was the work of Robert D. Putnam ; that launched social capital as a popular focus for research Comparative effects of innovative and traditional policy discussion. In this piece we explore the the idea of social capital, review some of the evidence with regard to the claims made about it, and assess its significance for educators.
Social capital for starters For John Field Interaction enables people to build communities, to commit themselves to each other, and to knit the social fabric. A sense of belonging and the concrete experience of social networks and the relationships of trust and tolerance that can be involved can, it is argued, bring great benefits to people.
Trust between individuals thus becomes trust between strangers and trust of a broad fabric of social institutions; ultimately, it becomes a shared set of values, virtues, and expectations within society as a whole. Without this interaction, on the other hand, trust decays; at a certain point, this decay begins to manifest itself in serious social problems… The concept of social capital contends that building or rebuilding community and trust requires face-to-face encounters.
However, there can also be a significant downside. Groups and organizations with high social capital have the means and sometimes the motive to work to exclude and subordinate others.
Defining social capital Bourdieu: It is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities, having two characteristics in common: The three thinkers that most commentators highlight in terms of developing a theoretical appreciation of social capital are Pierre Bourdieu, James Coleman and Robert Putnam.
Bourdieu wrote from within a broadly Marxist framework. He began by distinguishing between three forms of capital: A basic concern was to explore the processes making for unequal access to resources and differentials in power — and the ways in which these fed into class formation and the creation of elites.
The possession of social capital did not necessarily run alongside that of economic capital, but it still was, in his view, an attribute of elites, a means by particular networks held onto power and advantage.
In other words, he argued that those living in marginalized communities or who were members of the working class could also benefit from its possession.
Drawing upon a base of rational choice theory James Colemanlooked to social capital as part of a wider exploration of the nature of social structures. He argued that social capital was defined by its function. However, as PortesFoley and Edwards and others have pointed out, a number of problems flow from defining social capital by its function.
Like other social investigators he highlighted the role of the family and kinship networks, and religious institutions in the creation of social capital.
He believed that changes in both spheres were problematic. They were less able to socialize in appropriate ways; ties appeared to be looser and weaker see Portes John Field brings out some interesting dimensions: He wrote from a background in political science and, as such, brought out some important dimensions.
Based, initially, on a detailed study of Italian political institutions he argued for the significance of social capital and the quality of civic life in the cultivation of democratic society.A Comparative Study of National Culture and Innovation: Effects of Cultural Dimensions on Traditional Innovation and Online Innovation Jongwook Kwon Kangwon National University, S Korea [email protected] Dan Kim take the lead in innovative capability over others.
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