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From thiswe note that capital budgeting refers to the assessment of investment decision or disinvestment decision so as to see if it is realistic or not.
It is planning for main capital, investment or expenditures. Capital budgeting decisions involve the following elements; it should consider all the cash flows of the investment in determining the true profitability of the investment it should provide an objective and and an unambiguous way of distinguishing the good projects from the bad projects it should help to rank investment in order of profitability it should recognize the fact that large and early cash flows are preferred it should be applicable to any conceivable investment project.
There is a number of cash flow techniques that can be used to evaluate an investment.
They range from discounted cash flows methods Net present Value, Internal rate of return, Profitability index to non discounted cash flows methods Payback, Discounted payback, Accounting rate of return.
It is to be noted that for the purpose of this assignment we will consider only the net present value. There are some reasons that show the importance of Capital investment decisions: Multinational capital budgeting, like traditional domestic capital budgeting, focuses on the cash inflows and outflows associated with prospective long term investment projects.
Multinational Capital Budgeting techniques are used in traditional FDI analysis, such as the construction of manufacturing plant in another country, as well as in the growing field of international mergers and acquisitions.
The basic steps are as follows: Complexities of budgeting for a foreign project. Capital Budgeting for a foreign project is considerably more complex than the domestic case. Several factors contribute to this greater complexity. Parent Cash flows must be distinguished from project cash flows.
Each of these two types of cash flows contributes to a different view of value. The cash flows of a foreign project are in a foreign currency and hence subject to exchange risk from the point of view of the parent company. Managers must evaluate political risk because political events can drastically reduce the value of expected cash flows.
Parent cash flows often depend on the form of financing. The foreign country may impose withholding taxes on remittances like royalty, license fees, interest and dividend paid by a subsidiary to its overseas parent.
In addition, the home country may also impose taxes on the parent company on the incomes it receives from its foreign subsidiary. If a double taxation avoidance treaty is in place, the parent may receive credit partial or total, for the taxes paid overseas. The parent company may have some funds accumulated in a foreign country which cannot be repatriated or can be repatriated only after paying heavy penalty taxes.
It may make sense to invest such block funds in a subsidiary or joint venture in the foreign country. Managers must anticipate differing rates of national inflation which can affect differing cash flows Terminal value is more difficult to estimate because potential purchasers have widely divergent views http: Essay UK - http: Search our thousands of essays:JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
Secondly, the capital budgeting practices of small and medium companies is not likely to be representative of all companies in the surveyed countries, because there are approximately 42,, small and medium firms in China in the end of according to the data provided by national bureau of statistic of China.
Listing of CESJ's Board of Directors, Board of Counselors, Project Managers and Interns. This paper uses survey data compiled by the National Federation of Independent Business to analyze the capital budgeting practices of small firms.
May 04, · PURCHASING AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS AND CLARIFICATION PURCHASING Purchasing is the act of buying the goods and services that a company needs to operate and/or manufacture products. Many people are ignorant of what purchasing is all about.
“Purchasing” is the term used in industries, commerce, public corporations to denote the act of and the. Published: Tue, 05 Dec BenchmarkingÂ (best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking) is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector.