Bacteria and archaea

Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer Sexual and asexual reproduction Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure.

Bacteria and archaea

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that do not have well-defined organelles such as a nucleus. The cells are typically enclosed in a rigid cell wall and a plasma membrane.

Bacteria contain all of the genetic material necessary to reproduce, and they reproduce by simple cellular division. Bacteria show a wide range of nutrient requirements and energy-related metabolism.

Some bacteria require only minerals and a carbon source such as sugar for growth, while others require more complex growth media. Bacteria play an extremely important role in recycling nutrients in the environment.

Bacteria break down organic matter into simple compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and they cycle important nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Bacteria can migrate to areas that are rich in specific nutrients that they require for growth. Bacteria can also attach themselves to surfaces and form communities known as biofilms.

Bacteria and archaea

An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst. The enzyme is responsible for accelerating the rate of a reaction in which various substrates are converted to products through the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex.

In general, each type of enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction and will operate on only one type of substrate. This is often referred to as a "lock and key" mechanism. As a consequence, enzymes are highly specific and are able to discriminate between slightly different substrate molecules.

In addition, enzymes exhibit optimal catalytic activity over a narrow range of temperature, ionic strength and pH. Do enzymes break down any molecule or just specific ones and how specific do they get: The specificity of an enzyme for it's substrate is generally a function of the enzyme's "active site" or binding site.

The structure of the protein determines the range of substrates or "keys" that can fit into the lock. Most enzymes are exquisitely specific.

That is, they react only with one specific substrate.

Life's extremists. . .

Some enzymes, however, have a more flexible active site that can accommodate molecules that are closely related to the target substrate.

In this case, there is typically a preferred substrate with which the enzyme reacts at a higher rate than with related compounds.

Can Enzymes adapt to different conditions and to different grease, oils and food: Enzymes are not living things. They have no ability to adapt to changing conditions or substrate sources.

Their level of activity is a function of these conditions.

Archaea - Wikipedia

If they are not in optimal conditions, their activity decreases or stops. How do bacteria break down any molecule or just specific and how specific do they get: Bacteria have the capability of producing many different types of enzymes.

They are living organisms that respond to their environment. In general, bacteria are capable of producing enzymes that degrade a wide variety of organic materials such as fats, oils, cellulose, xylan, proteins and starches. It is important to note that all of these materials are polymers that must be reacted with more than one type of enzyme in order to be efficiently degraded to their basic building blocks.

Nature provides a specific "team" of enzymes to attack each type of polymer. For example, there are three different classes of enzymes endocellulases, exocellulases, cellobiohydrolases that are required to degrade a cellulose polymer into basic glucose units.

All three types of enzymes are referred to as cellulases, but each class attacks a specific structure or substructure of the polymer. Acting individually, none of the cellulases is capable of efficiently degrading the polymer.

Bacteria can produce the complete "team" of enzymes that are necessary to degrade and consume the organic materials present in their environment at any given time. Moreover, bacteria can produce multiple "teams" at the same time. Can bacterium adapt to different conditions and to different grease, oils, proteins, chemicals and food: Bacteria can adapt to a range of conditions and food supplies.Throughout this document taxa are listed according to their general host range.

Introduction to the Archaea

Each type species name is preceded by the name of the order, family and genus it belongs to. Abstract. Microorganisms growing in highly acidic environments (pH values below three) are found in all three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya.

BOD, COD & DO. Water quality has a number of constituents including biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD). Natural organic detritus and organic waste from wastewater treatment plants, failing septic systems, and agricultural and urban runoff, are a food source for water-borne bacteria.

In the past, archaea were classified as bacteria and were called archaebacteria. But it was discovered that archaea have a distinct evolutionary history and biochemistry compared with bacteria. The similarities are that archaea and eubacteria are prokaryotes — single-celled organisms that do not.

There are two kinds of microorganisms that are divided into prokaryotes and those include bacteria and archaea. But not all bacteria and archaea belong to prokaryotes. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology chapter on environmental microbiology and bacterial involvement in the cyscles of elements required for life.

Bacteria - Wikipedia