This leaves traces that serve to structure subsequent building activity and provide opportunities and constraints for city-building processes, such as land subdivision, infrastructure development, or building construction.
Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large, dense populationsbut others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations.
Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistanexisting from about BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50, or more and a sophisticated sanitation system. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes.
In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece developed the polisan association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city.
Under the authority of its empireRome transformed and founded many cities coloniaeand with them brought its principles of urban architecture, design, and society.
In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilizationChavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the HuariChimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.
It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.
In the remnants of the Roman Empirecities of late antiquity gained independence but soon lost population and importance. In the Holy Roman Empirebeginning in the 12th.
Bythese cities, as far as still part of the empire, became part of the Imperial Estates governing the empire with the emperor through the Imperial Diet.
In Italy medieval communes developed into city-states including the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch commercial cities of GhentYpresand Amsterdam. Early modern[ edit ] In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political organization following the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century.
However, most towns remained small. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding administration, finances and urbanism.
Industrial age[ edit ] The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing. Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health problems resulting from overcrowdingoccupational hazards of industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitationand communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera.
Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape.The first form of urban space, that was hegemonic until the seventeenth century A.D. was “that of a classic container: an imposing mass of monumental buildings, usually protected by a wall and surrounded by closely built residential quarters, workshops.
the analysis of urban development of the past twenty years presented in this first edition of the World Cities Report shows, with compelling evidence, that there. Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern, lot (or, in the UK, plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to collectively as urban grain.
Analysis of specific settlements is usually undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of . Cities growing horizontally are struggling to deal with increasing urban populations and are not likely to be sustainable over the long term because of challenges with congestion, infrastructure.
Urban population world wide is projected to exceed rural settlement population for the first time in True Rural settlements outside European cities have been converted to weekend homes, because they are no longer needed for agriculture. Urban wildlife is wildlife that can live or thrive in urban environments.
Some urban wildlife, such as house mice, are synanthropic, ecologically associated with kaja-net.com species or populations may become entirely dependent on humans.
For instance, the range of many synanthropic species is expanded to latitudes at which they could not survive the winter outside of human settlements.