The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulfhandwritten in half-uncial script:
Abstract HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives.
Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10—24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal.
We combined three analytical approaches: The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.
The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming.
Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract symbolic stigma.
Stigma has negative effects across the prevention to treatment continuum.
This moralistic shaming and blaming, termed symbolic stigma, is often distinguished from instrumental stigma, or the misplaced fear of infection through everyday contact with PLWHA Herek, Our focus in this paper is symbolic stigma.
Negative beliefs are much more prevalent than negative behaviours i. It is widely accepted that the content and intensity of stigmatising beliefs are influenced by epidemiological, sociocultural and political context.
However, there is limited contextual research on stigma and relatively few studies describe stigma across settings with a view to increasing understanding of cross-cultural variability Aggleton, ; Genberg et al.
Much work remains to be done on the development of valid indices and scales to measure stigma cross-culturally, especially in generalised HIV epidemics and resource-limited countries Mahajan et al.
While survey instruments to measure stigma have recently been developed and validated for southern Africa Deacon et al.
These measure self-reported intended behaviour e. Joffe, ; H. Social representations reflect social processes that take place between members of a social unit Raudsepp, and communicate norms and values in symbolic form; they are therefore of particular value for research on symbolic stigma.
Social representations are often pre-conscious and therefore less subject to informant bias than conscious evaluative judgements like attitudes. Narratives have been identified as a particularly valuable and underused data source for their study Laszlo, ; Murray, In this paper, we compare symbolic stigma in six African countries with contrasting HIV prevalence rates through the analysis of social representations in fictional narratives written by young people.
The data provide access to the voices and imaginings of young Africans in a largely unmediated way, rather than through direct elicitation via survey, interview or focus group questions.Symbolic interactionism focuses on the analysis of the symbolic aspects of social interactions.
The basic principle of interactionism is that an individual perceives (estimates) behave in accordance with attitudes of other people, that is, a person is for himself the one, whom he presents to others in the social world. The "inner circle" countries with many native speakers of English share an international standard of written English and jointly influence speech norms of English around the world.
English does not belong to just one country, and it does not belong solely to descendants of English settlers. SAGE Video Bringing teaching, learning and research to life. SAGE Books The ultimate social sciences digital library. SAGE Reference The complete guide for your research journey.
SAGE Navigator The essential social sciences literature review tool. SAGE Business Cases Real world cases at your fingertips. CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. The paper analyzes symbolic representation of a daughter as a Niyani (goddess) and Satt Qur'an (seven Qur'ans), and associates it with her sexuality.
It is argued that these symbols are a means of. The purpose of this study is to identify the structural elements—and their interrelations—of social representations of culture, circulating among university students. This approach has been employed by many researchers to provide a first level of exploration in terms of descriptions, evaluations, information, and prototypes related to the object of representation.
The doctrine that the moral standards people subscribe to differ from culture to culture and from society to society, The period of Macedonian domination of the Greek-speaking world from around B.C.E.
to about 30 B.C.E., A symbolic representation of the penis, Phenomena.